Invasive Fungal Sinusitis

Invasive fungal sinusitis can have a serious affect on you if you are an immunocompromised individual; however, immunocompetent patients are still susceptible to this condition. There two different forms of invasive fungal sinusitis varying in severity: acute invasive fungal sinusitis, and chronic invasive sinusitis. While acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most serious and severe condition, it is important to discuss the both forms as all their associated problems still manifest themselves in harmful ways.

It is important to discuss the definition of immunodeficiency, as it is a condition that fosters invasive Fungal Sinusitis. A person who exhibits immunodeficiency is said to be immunocompromised. Being immunocompromised means your immune system is damaged and/or inhibited making it extremely difficult for your body to fight off infections and disease. This is especially concerning for patients infected with pathogenic fungus, like in invasive fungal sinusitis, as it is hard to rid the body of the infection.

Primarily exhibiting itself in immunocompromised patients, acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of invasive fungal sinusitis with high mortality rates. The most common fungus found with invasive fungal sinusitis is Aspergillus. According to Dr. Bruno Di Muzio et al of Hospital Santa Paula in São Paulo, people with diabetes mellitus and patients with nervous system conditions like haematologic malignancies are prone to this form of invasive fungal sinusitis.1 Additionally, patients with advanced AIDS are susceptible to invasive fungal sinusitis. Infection begins in the nasal cavity and spreads to the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms can include a thickening of mucous consistency, bone destruction, and fat stranding outside the sinuses.2 Currently, the most effective treatment of acute invasive fungal sinusitis is early detection and diagnosis and subsequent surgical and medical treatment repair or bolster a compromised immune system. However, once the fungus infection establishes itself in the sinus, it is very hard to remove the fungus and cure the disease. Unfortunately, mortality rates in acute invasive fungal sinusitis are high.

Chronic invasive fugal sinusitis is a less severe form of invasive sinusitis and typically has a longer course of action. This variant of invasive sinusitis is found present in mostly immunocompetent individuals or individuals that are only mildly immunocompromised. This condition typically takes more than 12 weeks to manifest itself in a patient’s body. Its symptoms are similar but less severe than acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

Invasive fungal sinusitis is a serious problem for immunocompromised patients and is very damaging to the nervous system and the patient’s health. Its mortality rates are high and current treatment methods are vague and generally ineffective. This condition should be researched and understood, and solutions be explored and implemented.

1Muzio, Bruno, Dr., and Frank Gaillard, A.Prof. “Chronic Invasive Fungal Sinusitis | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org.” Radiopaedia Blog RSS. Accessed June 13, 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/chronic-invasive-fungal-sinusitis.

2 Deshazo, Richard D. “Syndromes of Invasive Fungal Sinusitis.” Medical Mycology 47, no. 1 (May 19, 2008). Accessed June 13, 2016. http://mmy.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/Supplement_1/S309.full.

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